We've been hearing about Herman Cain's 9-9-9 Plan for a few weeks and now Governor Rick Perry has released his tax proposal, supposedly a 20% flat tax. We will undoubtedly hear more as the Presidential campaign kicks into higher gear. As a public service, I am providing a simple way to understand the impact of these tax plans.
Step 1: Assume revenue neutrality.
Don't laugh; Cain's “9-9-9 Scoring Report” claims to be revenue neutral and Perry says he will keep federal revenue at 18% of gross domestic product.
Step 2: Look at what income is no longer taxed.
For example, the 9-9-9 Plan “features zero tax on capital gains and repatriated profits,” eliminates the estate tax, and cuts the corporate income tax from 35% to 9%, while Rick Perry's tax plan eliminates taxes on capital gains, dividends, Social Security, estates, repatriated profits, and cuts the corporate income tax from 35% to 20%.
Step 3: Determine how much of that income you have.
If you're not rich, you've got very little of it, except Social Security in the Perry plan. If you're not retired, you'll get virtually no reductions under either plan.
Step 4: Ask what taxes have to be raised to get to revenue neutrality.
Step 5: Look in the mirror to see who pays them.
Comments: As I argued in Competing for Capital, if you cut one group's tax burden, one of three things has to happen to offset the reduction: someone else's tax burden increases, government runs higher deficits, or programs must be cut. If you maintain revenue neutrality, the first of these options is the only one possible, as flat tax pioneers Robert Hall and Alvin Rabushka admitted as far back as 1983: “It is an obvious mathematical law that lower taxes on the successful will have to be made up by higher taxes on average people” (h/t James Carville, We're Right, They're Wrong).
But in fact, Perry's proposal clearly is not revenue neutral. How could it be, when people have the option of filing under the current tax system or his new system? People who would pay more under the new plan would pay under the old plan and people who would save money under the new plan would pay under the new plan: this necessarily means less revenue. Rich people would save quite a bit of money, as Seth Hanlon at Think Progress has shown. Using published tax returns of famous people and the tax form on the Perry website, he shows that Warren Buffett's tax rate would fall from 11% to 0.2%, former Vice-President Cheney's rate would drop from 19.1% to 6.4%, President Obama would get a $60,000 tax cut, and Governor Perry's rate would fall from 18.6% to 15.8%.
Similarly, Cain's 9-9-9 Plan would raise far less than current taxes do, even as it increases taxes on the middle class and the poor. Michael Linden at Think Progress estimates that it would only bring in 14% of gross domestic product, well below the current low revenue that's giving us a $1 trillion deficit. In addition, many analysts think his corporate income tax is actually a value-added tax in disguise (h/t Michael Linden).
The bottom line is that if we cut taxes for the wealthy and corporations, it will impact the budget elsewhere, in some combination of tax increases on the middle class, program cuts, and deficit increases. Regardless of the spin surrounding these and other tax plans that may come down the pike, if a proposal reduces some taxes but doesn't reduce your taxes, you will lose out via these three methods of compensating for the lost revenue.