At about 59 deaths per 100,000, the U.S. rate was double that of South Korea, Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, Japan and the Netherlands, and almost triple the rate of Singapore. As the graph below shows, the U.S. has the highest level of deaths from traffic accidents (though not much higher than Portugal, New Zealand, or Greece). However, as the story points out, the U.S. has by far the highest rate of deaths in this age group due to violence: 8.9 per 100,000, which appears from the graph to be about three times the rate for second-place Israel. The story notes that the violent death rate in Britain is only 1/18th that of the U.S. for this age group.
For "other" causes of death (disease plus non-auto accidents; thanks to commenter Marc Brown at The Incidental Economist for clarification of this point), Portugal narrowly leads the United States.
What does this mean for policy? Certainly automobile use is not going to change much any time soon, absent huge increases in gas prices and better mass transit and high-speed rail. Of course, as Thomas Friedman has advocated, the U.S. could force the price of gas up by raising the gasoline tax by $1-2 per gallon, but no one in a position to make this even possible advocates it. America's gun policies, similarly, will not change any time soon. According to a survey by Hepburn et al. (2006), Americans currently own somewhere between 260 to 305 million firearms. If the Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act, health insurance coverage will increase, perhaps slightly lowering mortality rates for some diseases.
In the near term, then, it appears unlikely that the mortality rate will change very much. Sorry that there's nothing less depressing to report. I'd be interested to hear your views on these issues, since obviously I have just scratched the surface here.